Kiev fortress is a collection of Kiev defense buildings that have been gathered for 15 centuries. Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the National Museum of History of the Second World War and its territories, the "Arsenal" plant, and other objects that were once shafts and defense walls of Kiev are now part of the fortress.
The history of the Kiev fortress began with a settlement that existed at the end of the V century on the ancient Old Kiev Mountain. At that time the fortification was surrounded by ramparts, moats and stockades. Later, when Kiev became capital of Kievan Rus, the fortification system started growing. However, in 1240 hordes of khan Batu destroyed most of the fortifications. The latter have been restored only during the years of the Polish-Lithuanian period: a Lithuanian castle has been built in Khorevitsja. Later new fortifications were built from Pechersk to Khreschatyk, and by the XVII century they have been united into one huge fortress – the Pechersk citadel. In 1706 Emperor Peter I came to Kiev. He was looking for a place to build his future fortifications site. In the summer of that year the construction began, and that is how the Pechersk fortress became the citadel of the Kiev fortress.
Kiev-Pechersk monastery was chosen as the main core of the fortification deliberately, as it had a powerful system of defense towers and walls. In the XVIII century a few more bastions were built: Pavlovsky, Petrovsky, Spassky, Andreevsky, Uspensky and Semenovsky moreover, a few other buildings emerged: Moskovkie and Vasylkovskye gates, barracks, a powder keg and an arsenal house. In 1812 the Zvirinets ground fortification was built, and later it served as a disguise for the Pechersk fortress.
Construction of the Kiev fortress began in 1831. Gradually the number of fortifications grew, as well as the number of earthen ramparts, towers, caponiers, gates and hospitals. Defense walls were also built around the Far and Near caves.
By 1860 the Kiev-Pechersk fortification group consisted of Hospitalny and Vasilkovsky fortifications, Pechersk citadel and Zvirinets defense earthworks. Nevertheless, the requirements for defense continuously grew, and therefore a Lisogorsky fort was built in 1877.
Nowadays the Kiev fort that has been taken under state protection in 1979 is a museum of history of fortification. There are over 17000 exhibits on display, including defense buildings from the times of rifled and smoothbore artillery.
Address: Hospitalnaya street, 24a.
The Kiev fortress works every day except Mondays from 10 am till 6 pm.