Panticapaeum means "the fish way". Panticapaeum was one of the first Greek cities - colonies. It was the capital of the Bosporan Kingdom, at all times, from inception to destruction of the kingdom. The city grew and developed together with the Bosporan state.
Panticapaeum was not just a capital, but also one of the most culturally, politically and craft developed cities of the Black Sea coast. This is evidenced by many works of famous ancient people in reference to the city. Almost all residents were able to read and write, evidenced by the many fine examples of the inscriptions that were found even in poor neighborhoods.
On the territory of the settlement were many temples of ancient Greek gods. The main religious cult of the city and state, was the cult of Apollo. The first settlers on the territory of Panticapaeum lived in earthen houses, then, with the development of trade with neighboring tribes, the Scythians, the city began to expand and grow, and first appeared furnished stone houses, and then paved roads and so on. Trade was mainly done with fish, cereals, wood, also been developed and the slave trade.
Special attention should be paid to the city's defense system, which was one of the most accomplished in ancient times. The necropolis was located near the city and is a system of mounds, which can be observed today. In the years of 370 ad Panticapaeum ceased to be the capital of Bosporan kingdom. Raiding tribes Ostrogoths and Huns destroyed Panticapaeum, large areas of the city turned into ruins. In the 6th century the city was revived by the Roman Emperor and received the name of Bosporus.
The first excavations in Panticapaeum began in 1903. According to one version Panticapaeum was the birthplace of the famous hero Gladiator – Spartacus, who was killed in a revolt against the slave system. After the death his body was transported to his homeland in Panticapaeum for ritual burning.