Kirovograd region is a region in central Ukraine, located between the rivers Dnieper and Southern Bug, in the southern part of Pridneprovskaya uplands. Within the region, in the village Dobrovelichkovka, there is the geographic center of Ukraine.
The settlement Golovanevsk was first mentioned in 1764 in the documents of Podolsk diocese, where it’s said about the construction of the wooden church in it. The first inhabitants of Golovanevsk were natives from Podillya and Kiev region.
Over time, many Poles settled in Golovanevsk, and in the early twentieth century, about half of the residents Golovanevsk were Jews. Each community, Ukrainians, Poles and Jews had their places of worship and cemetery, of which survived only Orthodox Church and synagogue.
There are several theories about the origin name of the village, one of them - from the word Olvia, because it is the place of the border of the ancient kingdom Olvia (Golviya - Golvaniya - golvanovsky land).
In another version the name of the village comes from Zaporozhye Cossack Golovan, who founded this settlement.
For a long time Golovanevsk belonged to the Polish magnates Pototski, the main occupation of local people was arable farming, the growing of wheat and barley were of special significance, because the part of the crop is in the second half of the XIX century was exported through Odessa, also there was grown sugar beets, viticulture, apiculture and tobacco growing were also developed.
In the end of the XVIII century Golovanevsk received the status of the town and turned into the center, in which in the second half of the XIX century, along with agriculture, there rapidly developed industry for processing of agricultural products; there were functioned candle-factory, distillery, leather, bricks and coach factories, slaughterhouse, two mills, saloons and two inns.
The development of Golovanevsk was favored by the building of the railway in 1890, and a year later there was opened the post road between Golovanevsk and Olviopol (now Pervomaisk in Nikolaev region).
During the Civil War, the authorities in Golovanevsk were often changed and belonged alternately to Bolsheviks, Austro-Hungarian troops, Petliura, Denikin adherents, and only in 1920 the Soviet power was finally established. Until 1954, Golovanevsk belonged to Pervomaisk District of Odessa region, and then joined the Kirovograd region.
During World War II in occupied Golovanevsk, the Nazis staged a temporary concentration camp for prisoners of war; the Nazis also shot the local Jews.
Several partisan detachments acted in the woods around Golovanevsk. Golovanevsk was released from the Nazis in March 1944.
In the postwar years the center Golovanevsk was almost entirely rebuilt, only a few old houses remained. However, some buildings in Golovanevsk, as well as the roads, sometimes fall into the underground catacombs, about which there are a lot of rumors and legends. During the years of Soviet power in Golovanevsk were constructed butter factory, a bakery, industrial plant.
Over a kilometer from Golovanevsk on edge of the tract "Volovik" there is a huge oak, its age is over 400 years, with a trunk diameter of about 5 meters, which is a natural monument and protected by the state.
Narrow-gauge railway Rudnitsa - Golovanevsk gauge 750 mm stretches through Vinnitsa and Kirovograd regions, belongs to Odessa railway, the total length of roads is 130 km.
It starts in the village Rudnitsa, passes through Bershad, Haivoron, Ul'ianovka and ends at the station Golovanevsk, in 7 km away from Golovanevsk.
The road was built in the early twentieth century as part of a vast system of narrow-gauge railways belonging to the Southern Society of spur tracts.
Previously, the regular traffic was on the route Rudnitsa - Podgorodnee. In the 1980's there began the construction of the broad gauge line from Haivoron to Podgorodnee; there were constructed the sections Haivoron - Tauzhnya and Podgorodnee - Golovanevsk, after which construction stopped.
In 2001, the narrow-gauge section from Golovanevsk to Podgorodnee was closed to traffic, and then dismantled. Today in Golovanevsk on broad gauge runs train Pomichna - Golovanevsk three times a week and on narrow gauge - diesel locomotive with an old car Rudnitsa-Golovanevsk.
At the border of two regions - Nikolaev and Kirovograd - you can find a place that once was closed to outsiders. If you came here several years ago with a camera, it could be regarded as espionage. Once, the 43rd Army of 46th missile division was locatedRead more...