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Russian Language

Russian AlphabetRussian language is one of the East-Slavonic languages, one of the largest languages of the world, in addition the most widespread one among the Slavonic languages and the most widespread language of Europe according to the geographical position as well as to the number of native speakers. The contemporary lexical and grammatical features of the Russian are the result of the long interaction of different East-Slavonic dialects, spread on the territory of Great Russia, and Church Slavonic language, which appeared in result of adaptation of the language of the first Christian books of IX—XI (“Old Slavonic Language”).
The modern Russian (standard variant, traditionally known as literary language) was formed approximately at the turn of XVIII—XIX centuries on the basis of Moscow dialect.
 
Russian language is the only state language of Russia. With the decree of the President of Russian Federation the year 2007 was proclaimed the Year of Russian language, within the bounds of which there were held cultural and educational, scientific events, directed to the popularization of the Russian language and literature and to the support of the learning programs in Russian and abroad. Russian is also one of the two state languages in the Republic Byelorussia.

The state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian, but the numbers of regions have the special legislation for the Russian. According to the decisions of the local councils 2006—2007 Russian has the legal status in Lugansk, Donetsk and Zaporozhye regions as well as in cities of Lugansk, Kharkov, Odessa, Sevastopol and Yalta.

Russian language, as well as the other large languages of the world, has its colloquial variants beyond the boarders of Russian Federation – in Baltic, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Moldavia, countries of Transcaucasia and Middle Asia. In the south-eastern Europe there emerged the dialects of Russian-Ukrainian - Surzhyk, or Russian-Byelorussian – Trasianka, because of the similarity of the languages. The language of the Russian emigrant diaspora (of different generations) has its linguistic peculiarities.

The appeal to the people in Russian has three forms (depending on the circumstances): Name + Surname; Name + Patronymic (the derivative word of the father’s name) respectful appeal. For example Alexander Ivanovich; Surname + Name + Patronymic – is usually used in the official documents for the identification of the person.
 
The particular difference of Russian from the number of languages is the non-fixed position of the words in the sentence. Emotions and semantic coloring are expressed with the help of intonation, which is not typical for German or English. The main problem in learning of the Russian language is the endings of substantives and adjectives. This feature is similar to the Italian.

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